CRETACEOUS FLOWERING PLANTS - FLOWERING PLANTS


CRETACEOUS FLOWERING PLANTS - WEDDING CAKE WITH RED FLOWERS - WEDDING BOUQUET PHOTO.



Cretaceous Flowering Plants





cretaceous flowering plants






    flowering plants
  • (flowering plant) angiosperm: plants having seeds in a closed ovary

  • A plant that produces flowers; an angiosperm

  • (2. flowering plant) a plant with long sword-shaped leaves. Flowers: many-colored. Genus Iris.

  • (Magnoliophyta). This is the most diverse and numerous division of plants, with upwards of 400,000 species. Typically the largest flowering plant (angiosperm) has been considered Eucalyptus regnans, which can reach heights of 92 m (304 ft)[6].





    cretaceous
  • Of, relating to, or denoting the last period of the Mesozoic era, between the Jurassic and Tertiary periods

  • from 135 million to 63 million years ago; end of the age of reptiles; appearance of modern insects and flowering plants

  • of or relating to or denoting the third period of the Mesozoic era

  • The Cretaceous period or the system of rocks deposited during it

  • abounding in chalk











cretaceous flowering plants - Cretaceous Dawn




Cretaceous Dawn


Cretaceous Dawn



A long-extinct beetle appears in a physics lab. Four-and-a-half people and a dog are hurled 65 million years through time, to the Age of the Dinosaurs, and paleontologist Julian Whitney and his companions have only one chance for rescue. Meanwhile in the lab, police chief Sharon Earles must solve the mystery of why half a body remains where five people had just been. Physicists try to determine what went wrong but can they fix the vault in time to retrieve the missing people—and do they want to?










87% (8)





Orchid Arch




Orchid Arch





Orchidaceae, also called the Orchid family, is the largest family of the flowering plants (Angiospermae). Its name is derived from the genus Orchis.
The Royal Botanical Gardens of Kew list 880 genera and nearly 22,000 accepted species, but the exact number is unknown (perhaps as many as 25,000) because of taxonomic disputes. The number of orchid species equals about four times the number of mammal species, or more than twice the number of bird species. It also encompasses about 6–11% of all seed plants. About 800 new orchid species are added each year. The largest genera are Bulbophyllum (2,000 species), Epidendrum (1,500 species), Dendrobium (1,400 species) and Pleurothallis (1,000 species). The family also includes the Vanilla (the genus of the vanilla plant), Orchis (type genus) and many commonly cultivated plants like some Phalaenopsis or Cattleya.
Moreover, since the introduction of tropical species in the 19th century, horticulturists have more than 100,000 hybrids and cultivars.

A majority of orchids are perennial epiphytes, which grow anchored to trees or shrubs in the tropics and subtropics. Other species are lithophytes, growing on rocks or very rocky soil, or are terrestrial. Nearly all temperate orchids are terrestrial.

Orchids are easily distinguished, as they share some very evident apomorphies. Among these: bilaterally symmetric (zygomorphic) and resupinate, a petal (labellum) is always highly modified, stamens and carpels are fused, and the seeds are extremely small.

Orchidaceae are well known for the many structural variations in their flowers.
Some orchids have single flowers but most have a racemose inflorescence, sometimes with a large number of flowers. The flowering stem can be basal, that is produced from the base of the tuber, like in Cymbidium, apical, meaning it grows from the apex of the main stem, like in Cattleya, or axillary, from the leaf axil, as in Vanda.
As an apomorphy of the clade, orchid flowers are primitively zygomorphic (bilaterally symmetrical), although in some genera like Mormodes, Ludisia, Macodes this kind of symmetry may be difficut to notice.

A study in the scientific journal Nature has shown that the origin of orchids goes back much longer than originally expected. An extinct species of stingless bee, Proplebeia dominicana, was found trapped in Miocene amber about 15-20 million years ago. The bee was carrying pollen of a previously unknown orchid taxon, Meliorchis caribea, on its wings.
This indicates that orchids may have an ancient origin and have arisen 76 to 84 million years ago during the Late Cretaceous. In other words, they may have co-existed with dinosaurs. It shows also that at that time insects were active pollinators of orchids.
Using the molecular clock method, it was possible to determine the age of the major branches of the orchid family. This also confirmed that the subfamily Vanilloideae is a branch at the basal dichotomy of the monandrous orchids, and must have evolved very early in the evolution of the family. Since this genus occurs worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions, from tropical America to tropical Asia, New Guinea and West Africa, and the continents began to split about 100 million years ago, significant biotic exchange must have occurred after this split (since the age of Vanilla is estimated at 60 to 70 million years).
This find is the first proof of fossilised orchids to date.
The extinct orchid M. caribea has been placed within the extant tribe Cranichideae, subtribe Goodyerinae (subfamily Orchidoideae).

Thank you Wikipedia.org for the information on the Orchid.











Autumn Colors - Fem (File: MG 5616)




Autumn Colors - Fem (File: MG 5616)





Cores do Outono - Folda seca da Samambaia.

Ferns are vascular plants differing from lycophytes by having true leaves (megaphylls). They differ from seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms) in their mode of reproduction—lacking flowers and seeds. Like all other vascular plants, they have a life cycle referred to as alternation of generations, characterized by a diploid sporophytic and a haploid gametophytic phase. Unlike the gymnosperms and angiosperms, the ferns' gametophyte is a free-living organism.


A fern is any one of a group of about 12,000 species of plants. Unlike mosses, they have xylem and phloem (making them vascular plants). They have stems, leaves, and roots like other vascular plants. Ferns do not have either seeds or flowers (they reproduce via spores).

By far the largest group of ferns are the leptosporangiate ferns, but ferns as defined here (also called monilophytes) include horsetails, whisk ferns, marattioid ferns, and ophioglossoid ferns. The term pteridophyte also refers to ferns (and possibly other seedless vascular plants; see classification section below). A pteridologist is a specialist in the study of ferns and lycophytes.

Ferns first appear in the fossil record 360 million years ago in the Carboniferous but many of the current families and species did not appear until roughly 145 million years ago in the late Cretaceous (after flowering plants came to dominate many environments).

Ferns are not of major economic importance, but some are grown or gathered for food, as ornamental plants, or for remediating contaminated soils. Some are significant weeds. They also featured in mythology, medicine, and art.









cretaceous flowering plants








cretaceous flowering plants




Cretaceous Dawn






Cretaceous Dawn uses time travel through a graviton vault in a particle physics lab to send its characters — four people and a German shepherd — from modern-day Creekbend, S.D., to the same location 65 million years in the past. Beginning on the white sands of a too-idyllic beach, the characters, and the reader, embark on a thousand-mile trek from the Epicontinental Sea to the foothills of the infant Rocky Mountains. During two months of travel by river and over land, the survivors encounter a host of Cretaceous vegetation, dinosaurs, mammals, reptiles, and of course terrain, all vastly different from those of the modern South Dakota and Montana. And while they are struggling on in the past, present-day investigators, led by Creekbend’s female police chief, attempt to solve the mystery of an empty, damaged lab — empty, that is, except for the lower half of a human body.

Cretaceous Dawn uses time travel through a graviton vault in a particle physics lab to send its characters — four people and a German shepherd — from modern-day Creekbend, S.D., to the same location 65 million years in the past. Beginning on the white sands of a too-idyllic beach, the characters, and the reader, embark on a thousand-mile trek from the Epicontinental Sea to the foothills of the infant Rocky Mountains. During two months of travel by river and over land, the survivors encounter a host of Cretaceous vegetation, dinosaurs, mammals, reptiles, and of course terrain, all vastly different from those of the modern South Dakota and Montana. And while they are struggling on in the past, present-day investigators, led by Creekbend’s female police chief, attempt to solve the mystery of an empty, damaged lab — empty, that is, except for the lower half of a human body.










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